The Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow, often known simply as the Avro Arrow, was a delta-winged interceptor aircraft designed and built by Avro Canada.
AVRO CF-105 Arrow
C series / CRJ-200 / Canadair CC-109 Cosmopolitan / Bombardier Challenger 600 series / Bombardier CRJ700 series/900/1000 (70–100 passengers) / DHC-7 / DHC-8
Learjet 35 / Learjet 55 / Learjet 60 XR / Learjet 65 / Learjet 85 / Bombardier Challenger 850 / Canadair Global Express
Transport / Waterbombers / Others
Design and development
In the post-Second World War period, the Soviet Union began developing a capable fleet of long-range bombers with the ability to deliver nuclear weapons across North America and Europe. The main threat was principally from high-speed, high-altitude bombing runs launched from the Soviet Union travelling over the Arctic against military bases and built-up industrial centres in Canada and the United States. To counter this threat, Western countries strenuously undertook the development of interceptors that could engage and destroy these bombers before they reached their targets.
A. V. Roe Canada Limited had been set up as a subsidiary of the Hawker Siddeley Group in 1945, initially handling repair and maintenance work for aircraft at Malton, Ontario Airport, today known as Toronto Pearson International Airport. The next year the company began the design of Canada's first jet fighter for the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF), the Avro CF-100 Canuck all-weather interceptor. The Canuck underwent a lengthy and troubled prototype stage before entering service seven years later in 1953. Nevertheless, it went on to become one of the most enduring aircraft of its class, serving in a variety of roles until 1981.
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The Mk 2 version was to be fitted with the Orenda PS-13 Iroquois engines and would be evaluated by RCAF acceptance pilots as well as Avro test pilots. The new PS-13S engines were designed to produce 30,000 lbf (130 kN) each. The Astra/Sparrow fire control system had been terminated by the government in September 1958 with all aircraft to employ the Hughes/Falcon combination.
Top speed would have been limited by atmospheric frictional heating, but according to project engineer James Floyd, "[t]he aluminum alloy structure which we favoured was good for speeds greater than a Mach number of 2."
Canadair North Star
Avro engineering had been considering supersonic issues already at this point. Supersonic flight works in a very different fashion and presents a number of new problems. One of the most critical, and surprising, was the sudden onset of a new form of drag, known as wave drag. The effects of wave drag were so strong that engines of the era could not provide enough power to overcome it, leading to the concept of a "sound barrier"
National origin Canada
Manufacturer Avro Canada
First flight 25 March 1958
Status Cancelled (20 February 1959)
Primary user Royal Canadian Air Force
Produced 1957–1959 (design work began in 1953)
Number built 5 Unit cost C$3.5–5 million
Length: 77 ft 9 in (23.71 m)
Wingspan: 50 ft 0 in (15.24 m)
Height: 21 ft 2 in (6.25 m)
Max. takeoff weight: 68,605 lb (31,120 kg)
Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney J75-P-3 turbojets
Dry thrust: 12,500 lbf (55.6 kN) each
Thrust with afterburner: 23,500 lbf (104.53 kN) each
Maximum speed: Mach 1.98 (1,307 mph, 2,104 km/h) at 50,000 ft (15,000 m) max. recorded speed; Mach 2+ potential
Cruise speed: Mach 0.91 (607 mph, 977 km/h) at 36,000 ft (11,000 m)
Combat radius: 360 NM (410 mi, 660 km)
Service ceiling: 53,000 ft (16,150 m)
Rockets: 2× AIR-2A Genie unguided nuclear rockets or Missiles: Up to 8× AIM-4 Falcon, Canadair Velvet Glove (cancelled 1956) or 3 AIM-7 Sparrow II 2D active guidance missiles (cancelled)
AVRO CF_105 Arrow
The Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow, often known simply as the Avro Arrow, was a delta-winged interceptor aircraft designed and built by Avro Canada. The Arrow is considered to have been an advanced technical and aerodynamic achievement for the Canadian aviation industry.